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**Summary**

One key basis for mathematical thinking is deductive reasoning. In contrast to deduction, inductive reasoning depends on working with different cases and developing a conjecture by observing incidences till we have observed each and every case. Thus, in simple language we can say the word â€˜inductionâ€™ means the generalisation from particular cases or facts.

The principle of mathematical induction is one such tool which can be used to prove a wide variety of mathematical statements. Each such statement is assumed as P(n) associated with positive integer n, for which the correctness for the case *n* = 1 is examined. Then assuming the truth of P(*k*) for some positive integer *k*, the truth of P(*k*+1) is established.